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J. E. Thomas &Son Artesian Well Co.
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FAQ's Answered by Licensed NH Well Driller and Water Systems Operator

What is an Artesian Well?

It is a drilled well through which water is forced upward under hydrostatic pressure. The water in an artesian well flows from an aquifer, which is a layer of porous rock, capable of holding and transmitting quantities of water.

How Is an Artesian Well Properly Constructed?

To create an artesian well, the first process is to drill down through the topsoil or overburden – this can consist of loam, sand, rocks, gravel, clay, etc. – until the drill reaches what is called ledge or bedrock. At this point, we continue to drill into the ledge far enough to ensure it is a good solid formation. Now the well casing will be set down through the hole in the overburden into the ledge. A good seal into the ledge is the most important part of the process. This is what keeps surface contaminates from entering your well.

Once the well casing is set into the bedrock using a drive-shoe well seal, we can start drilling for water within the bedrock. At this point, we use a percussion drill that will go down through the casing until it strikes bedrock. Now as we drill down through the rock, it will make its own casing. This will hold and store the water that comes from within the rock. As the drill goes down, it goes through different layers of rock as well as cracks, voids, and fracture zones. These different layers and cracks can carry water through them. Once they are drilled into, the water, which is under hydrostatic pressure, will follow the easier path into the well, creating a closed source of water that can supply your home or business.

What Is Hydro Fracturing?

Well hydro fracturing is a method used to increase production in low-yielding wells. A borehole packer is set below the well casing into the bedrock and expands it to seal the area to be opened or hydro-fractured. Next, water is pumped into the well at a high pressure and volume to open tight fractures in the rock. This can help the fractures flow more freely and possibly connect to nearby fractures in the formation. The result can increase flow rates within the well.

What is Geothermal Energy?

With the high cost of energy today, more and more homeowners and businesses are turning to geothermal energy sources. Geothermal systems have been around for many years and are now more popular than ever. Because of the technology, the systems today are far more advanced and efficient than they have ever been.

Geothermal energy primarily relies on the earth's natural energy, or what can be called green energy. Geothermal energy produces no carbon monoxide or green house gasses. This helps the earth's ozone and helps create a cleaner environment.

How Does Geothermal Work?

Geothermal works by using the earth's natural constant temperature just below the surface. A geo exchanger located in your home or business, draws the heat from water or fluid taken from the earth and uses that heat to warm your home or building. The cooled water or fluid is then returned back to the earth to regain its normal temperature. In the summer months the same system works with the process reversed to cool your home or business.

How Is Geothermal different?

The geo exchange system works very different than an ordinary furnace. A furnace creates heat by burning fuel, such as oil or gas in a combustion chamber, and also requires a chimney.

In a geo exchange system the heating and cooling is taken from the earth through water or fluid collected from below the surface and then returned back through piping connected to your home or business. There is no exhaust or chimney.